TEFL Online Training Program 5

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TEFL Online Training Information
Guide for Topic 5

2 Online Topics
1 Online Exam

TEFL Online Course Training Program 5

In Module 5 of our Online TEFL Course you will learn more about Teaching Grammar and Teaching Vocabulary for TEFL

Teachning Grammar & Vocabulary

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Teaching grammar correctly involves identifying key grammatical concepts for ESL learners and employing methods that suit their learning styles and preferences. Here are some key grammatical concepts for ESL learners and methods for teaching grammar inductively and deductively:

Key Grammatical Concepts for ESL Learners

  1. Parts of Speech:
    • Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
  2. Sentence Structure:
    • Subject-verb agreement, word order, sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory), and sentence patterns.
  3. Tenses and Verb Forms:
    • Present simple, present continuous, present perfect, past simple, past continuous, past perfect, future simple, future continuous, future perfect, and modal verbs.
  4. Modifiers and Phrases:
    • Adjective and adverb phrases, prepositional phrases, and gerunds.
  5. Clauses and Sentence Connectors:
    • Independent and dependent clauses, relative clauses, coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
  6. Sentence Agreement and Consistency:
    • Subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and maintaining consistency in verb tense and point of view.
  7. Sentence Transformation:
    • Changing sentence types, forms, and structures (e.g., passive voice, reported speech, conditional sentences).

Methods for Teaching Grammar Inductively and Deductively

Inductive Approach:

1. Guided Discovery:

  • Present students with examples of target grammar structures in context and guide them through a process of analyzing and identifying patterns or rules on their own. Encourage students to make observations, ask questions, and draw conclusions through guided practice activities.

2. Contextualized Practice:

  • Provide meaningful contexts and real-life examples that illustrate the use of target grammar structures in authentic language situations. Encourage students to notice how grammar functions in context and apply their understanding through practice activities and tasks.

3. Problem-Solving Activities:

  • Present students with language problems or puzzles that require them to apply their knowledge of grammar rules to solve. Engage students in collaborative problem-solving activities, such as error correction exercises, sentence transformation tasks, or completing gap-fill exercises.

Deductive Approach:

1. Explicit Instruction:

  • Present grammar rules, explanations, and examples explicitly to students through direct instruction. Break down complex concepts into manageable chunks and provide clear explanations, definitions, and models to illustrate how grammar works.

2. Controlled Practice:

  • Offer structured practice activities that allow students to apply grammar rules in controlled contexts. Provide scaffolded exercises, drills, and worksheets that focus on specific grammar points and reinforce understanding through repetition and reinforcement.

3. Structured Feedback:

  • Provide immediate and targeted feedback on students’ performance during grammar practice activities. Correct errors, clarify misconceptions, and offer explanations to help students understand and internalize grammar rules effectively.

Teaching vocabulary effectively involves implementing strategies for vocabulary acquisition and integrating vocabulary into lessons in meaningful ways. Here are some strategies for both aspects:

Strategies for Vocabulary Acquisition

  1. Contextual Learning:
    • Teach vocabulary in context by exposing students to words and phrases in meaningful sentences or passages. Use authentic texts, such as articles, stories, and dialogues, that contain the target vocabulary in natural language use.
  2. Word Families and Word Forms:
    • Teach vocabulary words along with their related word forms (e.g., noun, verb, adjective, adverb forms) and word families (e.g., root words, prefixes, suffixes). Help students understand how words are related and how they can be used in different contexts.
  3. Visual Aids and Realia:
    • Use visual aids, such as pictures, illustrations, diagrams, and real-life objects (realia), to help students visualize and remember new vocabulary. Associating words with visual images can enhance retention and comprehension.
  4. Contextual Clues and Guessing Strategies:
    • Teach students how to use contextual clues, surrounding words, and guessing strategies to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words. Encourage students to use context, word roots, prefixes, suffixes, and cognates to make educated guesses about word meanings.
  5. Word Mapping and Graphic Organizers:
    • Use graphic organizers, such as semantic maps, word webs, and concept diagrams, to help students organize and categorize new vocabulary. Encourage students to make connections between related words and concepts to deepen their understanding.
  6. Vocabulary Games and Activities:
    • Incorporate vocabulary games and activities, such as word puzzles, matching games, flashcards, word bingo, and vocabulary charades, to make learning fun and interactive. Engage students in hands-on and collaborative activities that reinforce vocabulary acquisition.

Integrating Vocabulary into Lessons

  1. Pre-Teaching Vocabulary:
    • Introduce new vocabulary before reading or listening activities to provide students with the necessary background knowledge and comprehension support. Preview key vocabulary words, discuss their meanings, and provide examples in context.
  2. Vocabulary Expansion in Reading and Listening Activities:
    • Embed vocabulary learning opportunities within reading and listening activities by highlighting key vocabulary words, providing definitions or context clues, and asking comprehension questions that require students to use the target vocabulary.
  3. Vocabulary Development in Speaking and Writing Tasks:
    • Encourage students to use newly acquired vocabulary in speaking and writing tasks to reinforce their understanding and application of the words. Provide opportunities for students to practice using vocabulary in meaningful contexts, such as discussions, presentations, and writing assignments.
  4. Word Banks and Vocabulary Journals:
    • Create word banks or vocabulary journals where students can record and review new vocabulary words, along with their meanings, definitions, and example sentences. Encourage students to regularly review and use their vocabulary journals to reinforce retention.
  5. Vocabulary Review and Reinforcement:
    • Schedule regular vocabulary review sessions or quizzes to reinforce learning and retention of new vocabulary words. Use a variety of review activities, such as games, quizzes, and competitions, to make review sessions engaging and interactive.
  6. Authentic Language Use:
    • Provide opportunities for students to encounter and use vocabulary in authentic language contexts, such as discussions, debates, role-plays, and real-life situations. Encourage students to actively engage with vocabulary in meaningful communication tasks.


By implementing strategies for vocabulary acquisition and integrating vocabulary into lessons, TEFL teachers can help students expand their vocabulary knowledge and enhance their language proficiency. Vocabulary instruction should be interactive, contextualized, and integrated across all language skills to promote meaningful learning and application of new words. Regular exposure, practice, and reinforcement are key to building a strong vocabulary base and improving overall language proficiency.


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