1.4 Fourth Generation Computers

Fourth Generation Computers

Between 1971 and 2010, the most significant transformations happened. During this period, technological advancements allowed manufacturers to install millions of transistors on a single circuit chip. This technique was known as monolithic integrated circuits. It also marked the introduction of the Intel 4004 chip, the first commercially available microprocessor in 1971. This breakthrough ushered in the era of personal computers. Personal computers such as the Altair 8800 became accessible to the public as kits and needed assembly by the mid-1970s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, constructed personal computers for home use, like the Commodore Pet, Apple II, and the first IBM computer, began to enter the marketplace. In the early 1990s, personal computers and their capacity to form networks led to the development of the Internet. The fourth generation of computers also saw the development of smaller computers, such as laptops and portable devices. During this period, the graphical user interface, or GUI, was also developed. Memory and storage in computers have also seen significant advancements, including an increase in storage capacity and speed.